“”See Naples and die.” Well, I do not know that one would necessarily die after merely seeing it, but to attempt to live there might turn out a little differently.” Mark Twain – The Innocents Abroad
On Saturday it was time for another trip and after breakfast we joined the coach that was taking us to Naples. Naples is the third largest city in Italy after Rome and Milan but in the Golden Age of the eighteenth century it was the third largest in Europe after London and Paris. Until its annexation to the Kingdom of Italy in 1861, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was the wealthiest and most industrialized of the Italian states.
There is a famous phrase that says ‘See Naples and die!’ which originated under the Bourbon regime and means that before you die you must experience the beauty and magnificence of Naples. Some, less charitable, now say that the city is so mad, dangerous and polluted that death might possibly be a consequence of a visit there.
Naples, we learned, was dangerous for a number of reasons. Most obvious of all is its perilously close proximity to Vesuvius that looms large over the city. Naples is the most densely populated volcanic region in the world and is regarded as potentially one of the most dangerous volcanoes on earth because there is a population of three million people people living so close to it. Vesuvius has a tendency towards unexpected explosive eruptions and as the last one was in 1946 the next one is probably overdue.
The second reason is lawlessness because Naples has enormous problems with Mafia style organised crime. The Naples equivalent of the Mafia is the Camorra, which is a loose confederation of criminal networks in control of organised crime, prostitution, arms dealing and drug-trafficking, and the gang wars result in a high number of deaths. Although we were unlikely to come across the Camorra on our short visit to the city the tour guide did give strong advice on taking care of wallets and valuables and a recommendation not to buy anything from illegal street vendors. She told us that cheap cigarettes would most likely be made from sawdust substituted for tobacco and whiskey would be cold tea instead of a single malt and wherever we went we pestered by children trying to tempt us into a purchase.
The third reason is the high levels of pollution which means that Naples is a very unhealthy city. It was the most bombed Italian city of World-War-Two and today as we drove through it looked as though they were still tidying up. The streets were full of litter and there was graffiti on almost every wall. The historical tourist centre, which twenty years after our visit was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was better but we didn’t have to stray far away to find the unpleasant parts and the guide discouraged us from breaking away from the group..
There was a lot of air pollution as well and although the sun was shining above it we were trapped in a layer of smog and haze. We drove to a viewing platform high up in the city that had a view over the bay looking back towards Sorrento and although the sea looked inviting we knew that this was one of the most polluted parts of the whole of the Mediterranean Sea.
It was lunchtime and because we were in Naples we had to visit a pizzeria because, on the positive side, Naples is the home of the dough based, tomato topped classic. Authentic Neapolitan pizzas are made with local produce and have been given the status of a ‘guaranteed traditional specialty’ in Italy. This allows only three official variants: pizza marinara, which is made with tomato, garlic, oregano and extra virgin olive oil, pizza Margherita, made with tomato, sliced mozzarella, basil and extra virgin olive oil, and pizza Margherita extra made with tomato, buffalo mozzarella from Campania, basil and extra virgin olive oil. We had our pizza and a jug of wine in a very noisy establishment and then we resumed out sightseeing tour.
The main reason for a trip to Naples was to visit the National Archaeological Museum which is considered one of the most important in the World for artifacts from the Roman Empire. It was all very interesting and the best exhibits were the treasures unearthed at Pompeii and Herculaneum which filled many of the rooms. I remember it as.s a curious museum without logical sequence or order and many of the valuable items on display seemed dangerously vulnerable. In one room was a wooden bed that had been recovered from Pompeii and which one visitor decided to sit on to test it out. This provoked a rebuke from an attendant but I have to say that it was their own fault for not giving it adequate protection. I expect things might be different now.
In the late afternoon we left Naples and drove through the untidy outskirts of the city through whole neighbourhoods that were desperately in need of some attention. After the War the Italian Government spent huge amounts of cash on rebuilding Naples and the south of the country but in some of these places it looked as if they were yet to make a start. As we moved out of the haze of the city the sun came through and we drove back down the main road that returned us to Sant’ Agnello.